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Anders Breivik killed 77 people in Norway. A decade on, ‘the hatred is still out there’ but his influence is seen as low

In a nationwide memorial deal with at Oslo Cathedral just two days immediately after the assaults, Stoltenberg identified as for “a lot more democracy, extra openness, and extra humanity.”

Speaking with CNN’s “Amanpour” exhibit in an job interview to mark the anniversary, Stoltenberg — now NATO secretary-normal — repeated that message and applauded the way Norwegians had responded. But, he warned, the “hatred is even now out there.”

Previous thirty day period, the University of Oslo’s Center for Study on Extremism (C-REX) printed a collection of analyses hunting at Breivik’s extended-term affect.

The creator of one particular of the experiences, Dr. Jacob Aasland Ravndal, informed CNN it appeared extra restricted than media protection would counsel. “There was of course a great deal of worry following the assaults that they would make copycat assaults,” he claimed. But “somewhat surprisingly,” he mentioned, there have not been a lot of crystal clear-minimize scenarios of immediate inspiration from Breivik.

One particular of the much more obvious links is to the shooting assault in Munich, Germany on July 22, 2016, in which an 18-12 months-aged German-Iranian male killed nine people. The rampage was carried out on the fifth anniversary of the Norway attacks and the attacker had been “chatting a whole lot about Breivik,” Ravndal said. “But he was also deeply encouraged by lots of other figures,” Ravndal explained, some of them school-shooters.
The other apparent case is that of Brenton Tarrant, the Australian considerably-correct terrorist who stay-streamed an assault in which he killed 51 Muslim worshipers at two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, in March 2019.

But while Tarrant claimed to have been impressed by Breivik, investigators discovered that he had begun his scheduling some time prior to he study Breivik’s manifesto. “So even there, you can problem how substantially of an impact Breivik had,” Ravndal said. Tarrant’s have manifesto is very various from Breivik’s, which includes in its politics, he additional.

Rightwing extremist Anders Behring Breivik arrives in court on April 16, 2012 for the start of his trial.

The Counter Extremism Venture (CEP), an NGO that combats extremist groups, reported in a assertion Thursday that survivors of Breivik’s assaults had voiced problem pertaining to his “standing as an inspirational determine amongst much-right extremists.”

“[This status] underlines the need for better action to goal the dissemination of known extremist propaganda with crystal clear inbound links to violence on on line platforms,” reported David Ibsen, CEP government director. “The continued presence of considerably-proper sights online, along with better publicity to extremist content in excess of the training course of the Covid-19 pandemic, is of unique concern.”

In accordance to Ravndal, exploration suggests that in just Norway the much correct has not attained significantly attractiveness total considering the fact that the attacks and has been not able to change out supporters in any quantities on the streets.

“Of study course in Norway, as in all places else, on the net exercise has developed about these 10 a long time,” he mentioned. “But no matter if that displays a substantial enhance of significantly-suitable activity or just mirrors the development of social media on the online, that’s very challenging to say.”

Capturing spree

On that peaceful summer day in 2011, Breivik drove a van packed with a homemade fertilizer bomb into Oslo and parked it outside the house a authorities business. A several minutes later on, it exploded, killing 8 people, injuring quite a few more and damaging many properties.
Firefighters work at the site of the explosion near government buildings in the Norwegian capital, Oslo, on July 22, 2011.

Breivik, in the meantime, had established off by automobile on the 25-mile vacation to Utoya Island, in which a Labour Occasion summer months youth camp was having area. Posing as a police officer who was checking on safety subsequent the Oslo assault, he caught a ferry to the island and carried out a taking pictures spree in which 69 men and women died — most of them adolescents. Many many others ended up severely wounded.

All through his trial, Breivik boasted of getting an ultranationalist who killed his victims to combat multiculturalism in Norway, saying he acted out of “requirement” to protect against the “Islamization” of the country less than the ruling centre-remaining Labour Party.
A court docket ruling meant his testimony was not televised, denying him a opportunity to broadcast his views to a vast audience. But Breivik considered his writings would inspire right-wing terrorists to observe in his footsteps.
Police and emergency services gather following the massacre at a summer youth camp on July 22, 2011 on Utoya Island, Norway.
While elements of his 3-reserve manifesto ended up lifted from other resources, these types of as the writings of “Unabomber” Ted Kaczynski in the United States, Breivik also specific his meticulous, many years-prolonged setting up and gave strategic and operational tips.

In accordance to Professor Matthew Feldman, director of the Uk-based Centre for Analysis of the Radical Appropriate (CARR), Breivik’s document can even now “very easily” be identified in the darker reaches of the net regardless of initiatives to remove it.

That manifesto was “paradigmatic,” Feldman explained, “not just due to the fact it confirmed what a single personal can do in conditions of the horrific loss of daily life” but also in its concentrating on of Muslims and what Breivik identified as “cultural Marxism.”

Even extra importantly, Feldman stated, Breivik’s circumstance confirmed the risks posed by lone-wolf actors who self-radicalize on the web through networks of like-minded people and have out their preparations for violent attacks on the internet, making them really hard to detect.
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At the exact same time, Feldman explained, there has been the “slow increase, some would contact it mainstreaming, of suitable-wing extremism,” served in aspect by publicity on appropriate-wing media platforms. “For some it was laid bare on January 6 in the United States [in the assault on the Capitol] but it truly is some thing that is been collecting pace bit by bit but steadily in new decades,” he claimed.

In spite of this backdrop, Breivik’s actions and manifesto have gained restricted traction, in accordance to Ravndal.

His evaluation for C-REX signifies that “in the commencing the much-appropriate across the board rejected him,” explained Ravndal. An on-line help community that was recognized for Breivik afterwards collapsed. It was only with the emergence of on line community forums like 4chan and 8chan that Breivik after all over again began to get optimistic mentions, Ravndal said.

“The key acquiring, all in all, both when it comes to tactics but also for political, ideological assistance, is that it really is been surprisingly very little,” he explained. “It is really been feasible to locate assist, but the good thing is less than just one may possibly have nervous about initially looking at the substantial death toll and all the consideration these attacks received globally.”

Societal effect

Currently, the discussion has shifted in pieces of Norwegian society to broader ideological thoughts, Ravndal said.

Some — specially in the youth wing of the Labour Occasion — experience that there has not been a reckoning with the country’s considerably-right motion, the most important participant in which is the populist, appropriate-wing Progress Get together, he stated.

Breivik experienced been a member of the Progress Social gathering when he was younger but the occasion distanced by itself from him immediately after the attack.
In a joint assertion released on the party’s site previously this month, bash chief Sylvi Listhaug and deputy leaders Ketil Solvik-Olsen and Terje Søviknes pushed again against any suggestion that the Progress Party was not united with other Norwegians in rejecting Breivik’s attitudes and actions.

“We need to all stand alongside one another in opposition to violent extremism — irrespective of no matter if it comes from the ‘far right’, ‘far left’ or serious interpretations of religion,” the assertion stated. “Only the extremists will win if we exclude just about every other from the grief immediately after July 22 and weaken the unity all around the wrestle for democracy, flexibility of expression and equality.”

Labour has promised that if it wins electrical power in elections this September, it will established up a new fee to glance at radicalization.

There is also debate about whether the assault ought to be interpreted as an attack on Norwegian society as a full, or as an attack on the Labour Celebration specifically, Ravndal reported. “Right now, some in just the Labour Celebration maybe truly feel that that component of the story has been neglected a little bit.”

Leader of the youth organization of the Labour Party (AUF) Astrid Hoem, left, Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven, center, and leader of the Norwegian Labor Party Jonas Gahr Store, right, lay flowers at a memorial on Utoya island, on July 21, 2021.

Feldman considers that Norway’s response was shaped by the feeling that the perpetrator was “1 of their have,” as have been the victims, without the need of a perception of “otherness” to force a additional multicultural reaction.

“Norway in essence asked itself this dilemma, and it is really a really legitimate a person … ‘How did Norwegian modern society create such a monster?'” he mentioned. “It truly is a pretty inward-looking problem.”

By contrast, he said, New Zealand took a much extra international strategy as it seemed at what led up to the Christchurch attacks. This was in part because Tarrant, an Australian, had qualified worshipers at mosques, a lot of of whom had been international-born.

At the identical time, Primary Minister Jacinda Ardern’s reaction, such as putting on a hijab to meet up with survivors and family of these killed, was central in bringing all New Zealanders jointly in assistance of the victims as fellow citizens, he said.
Just months later, New Zealand collaborated with France to produce the “Christchurch Simply call” — a dedication by governments and tech corporations to do away with terrorist and violent extremist written content online — and subsequently worked with the United States and United Nations to keep the problem on the agenda, Feldman mentioned.

He hopes to get further more commitments to counter extremist written content on line at an celebration he is included with in Bergen, Norway, next month.

Members of the public pay their respects near Utoya Island on July 24, 2011 in Norway.

Breivik’s ideology ‘is nonetheless out there’

Talking to CNN earlier this month, Stoltenberg spoke of the shock he felt as he realized the scale of the horrors perpetrated by Breivik — and the personal sadness it brought, because he knew numerous of the victims.

He also stood by the message he delivered to the nation as it was nonetheless reeling from the July 22 assaults.

Norway's then-Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg, left, embraces Eskil Pedersen, leader of the Norwegian Labour Youth league and a survivor of the Utoya attack, on July 23, 2011.

“I still believe that our respond to was the correct just one,” Stoltenberg explained to CNN. “[Breivik] needed to attack our free of charge, open up democratic societies. So the ideal response is far more openness, additional democracy, simply because then we confirm that he is not winning, we are winning.

“He shown hatred. The greatest response to hatred is enjoy. So … I truly welcomed the robust concept from the folks of Norway, as (we) have witnessed also in many other countries that have been attacked, that we stand up for our values.”

That notwithstanding, Stoltenberg does not believe that that Breivik has been entirely defeated.

“He is convicted, he is in prison. But his ideology, that is however out there. And consequently we want to proceed — I consider we hardly ever will be in the posture exactly where we can say that we have received the fight, we can near the chapter fighting in opposition to extremism.”

Since 2011, Norway has executed measures to secure — as much as doable — from these assaults in the foreseeable future, Stoltenberg explained. And, he included, Brevik — whose 21-year sentence could be extended in the future if he however poses a risk — has misplaced in one crucial respect.

“We have to comprehend that the reason of this attack was to change Norway fundamentally. And … certainly, of program, this will be element of Norway’s background,” he reported. “It will be element of who we are as prolonged as we exist. But basically, it has not improved who we are.”

CNN’s Frederik Pleitgen contributed to this report.

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